So, I have actually resolved this issue, it seems to have been either an issue with the monogame 3.6 installer or with Visual studio.
When selecting from the reference manager "MonoGame for Windows Desktop (DirectX)" under extensions targeting .net framework 4.5 I got the Exit() error flagged in my code. That is even after adding a "WINDOWS" conditional compilation directive.
The solution was to say screw the reference manager and reference the dll by direct file path. I Referenced the dll in C:\Program Files (x86)\MonoGame\v3.0\Assemblies\Windows
Note that this SHOULD be the exact same assembly as far as I understand, yet referencing the file by this path instead of from the assembly cache in visual studio produced different results in my code.