Id do a search on the forums there are many posts about tilemaps and monogame extended has some built in stuff for it as well which is pretty popular.
SpriteBatch.Draw is itself drawing quads. A quad is only 2 triangles consisting of 4 points 2 of these points could considered to be shared between the two triangles.
If you consider each triangle to be its own set of 3 individual points instead. Then there are 6 total points 3 per triangle when triangles don't consider themselves to be sharing vertices.
drawing a tile map ... nkast has a well laid out solution link here as also lithium does, as well i have a basic example in the post.
drawing a quad, a pair of small examples that mimics what spritebatch does with a shader and manually created quads.
Is there a Good source of Information on how to use Quads instead of static Sprites?
There are many tutorials posts here examples and even what amounts to librarys which include things to make or just render tilemaps using monogame.
Sprites are image data drawn onto quads, which are then drawn to a backbuffer or onto a rendertarget, which will eventually be drawn to the back buffer anyways.
if i am using Quads, do i need to seperate my TextureAtlas into single Textures?
In almost every scenario a tile or sprite sheet is better for performance and is preferable, if it is purely a choice.
You can assign a source rectangle to sprite batch draw call, or to the texture coordinates of a quad you create yourself which is a manual duplication of what spritebatch draw does. The source rectangle denotes the area on the image you get pixels from. The destination denotes were on screen these pixels are placed at.
would i be fine setting up an array of Quads for each Tile at the Start of the Game and then just Drawing those affected by the View Matrix (onto a RenderTarget for the Final Render) ?
provided i understand you to mean can you swap out sprites to a pre made map of quads.
That is probably less efficient and more complicated then most other things people would normally do who have some experience. See the links to the posts you should look at examples there are many fully made ones.
or could I just Render the 64x64 Tile Chunks i had before onto Quads and discard of the RenderTargets afterwards?
There are many possible ways to render a tile map look to the examples and forum posts.